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Bill Aspray describes how Pitt recruited Allen Kent. He quotes Vice Chancellor Edison Montgomery, who was seeking:
“to find the best possible person to
introduce to, and to nurture within, Pitt the new field of information storage and retrieval. I knew nothing about the field. I did a short literature search. The name that appeared most frequently among books and articles on the
subject was Allen Kent. I approached him about coming to Pitt in a role, the specifics of which he was to define. He
Command and Control, Documentation, and Library Science: The Origins of Information Science at the University of Pittsburgh
Found in: IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
By William Aspray
Issue Date:October 1999
pp. 4-20

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The path that led from Watson Davis’s interest in improving scientific communication to the foundation of the ADI took a sharp turn in 1952, when the ADI was reorganized into a professional society. After the change, as in ancient mythologies, new leaders were now setting the course of the institute; its founder, Watson Davis, had to step aside; and ADI’s past history, for the moment, had become irrelevant.1

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The era between the end of World War II — when the field began to expand — through the 1950s had been a remarkably creative period for those concerned with science information and nontraditional information management. They created a body of knowledge, while others changed the shape of linguistics and embarked on work that led to the beginning of several of the new information sciences.2 Despite the feverish activities in the community, ADI’s growth following the reorganization was slow at first but surged in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

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Members of the reorganized ADI were mostly technical information managers and entrepreneurs and a few academics. Most members worked for governmental organizations or on government -supported projects. In this new cycle, government activities, national science, and technological developments again had a significant impact on ADI’s development. As automatic data processing technology improved and became more widespread; operations grew as government funds — especially from the armed services — spawned numerous projects. ADI members developed a stronger professional identity.

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A New Profession, a Changed Society 187

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To shed the image of an inbred Washington group — which it was at the time — the ADI began holding annual meetings outside the capital and started to include “volunteer papers” in its program in 1954. The institute began to reach out to other organizations and, on the prodding of Gerald J. Sophar, decided to also reach out beyond managers and academics to the “grass roots” and establish chapters across the country.3 The Potomac Valley chapter was established in 1957 in Washington, which had a vibrant science information-information science community, and was soon followed by the Delaware Valley and New York chapters.

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Reaching Out — Continuing Cooperation

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From the time of its reorganization the ADI was reaching out to work with other organizations to explore current knowledge and to consider the future of the field, and participated in organizing several significant meetings. The advances and limitations of automatic data processing were discussed, for example, at the symposium, “Machine Techniques in Scientific Documentation” (held in 1953 at the Welch Medical Library of the Johns Hopkins University). This symposium attracted a number of newcomers and introduced them to the excitement of the field and to the issues that concerned the documentation community.

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The ADI also cosponsored the initial conference of the Center for Documentation and Communication Research (CDCR-WRU) of Western Reserve University (now Case Western Reserve University). Jesse Shera, who was by then the dean of the School of Library Science at WRU, had been able to persuade the university administration to establish the first research institute in the field, which would provide a place for James Perry and his collaborator, Allen Kent, to continue their exploratory work. The Western Reserve group had the political savvy to realize the importance of fostering interest in scientific information among politicians and the industrial community; accordingly they invited appropriate representatives to participate in the meeting.

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As the number of short documentation workshops and seminars was growing, they also competed with ADI’s annual meetings. Such setbacks did not stop the ADI. When too few people attended the 1955 annual meeting in Philadelphia, the ADI held the next annual meeting in conjunction with the AAAS meeting in New York. That meeting brought together a remarkable group of theoreticians and practitioners. Mooers and Perry were active participants. Eugene Garfield reported on his young publishing company, which reproduced the table of contents of journals. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel — who was considered

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a brilliant logician and who died not much later — presented a paper, as did Noam Chomsky, who soon began to change the way people thought of language. Discussion panels included Hans Peter Luhn of IBM, who had been responsible for several advances in automatic data processing equipment; Maurice Tauber of Columbia University library school; and John Mauchly of Remington Rand, codeveloper of UNIVAC, the first major commercial computer. With remarkable energy, ADI’s active members were turning ADI into a full-fledged professional organization.

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As part of the reach-out program, in 1955 ADI accepted the invitation to join the Council of National Library Associations and became an affiliate of the AAAS. Since that time, the ADI organized at least one session at the AAAS annual meetings.

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Active members of ADI helped organize SLA’s documentation division. When in the mid-1950s the SLA considered organizing such a division, its president invited the ADI to come into SLA and offered ADI a “permanent niche.” The institute declined the invitation, but Scott Adams, ADI’s president, and several council members participated in the organizing meeting called by SLA’s Committee on Documentation; some even agreed to serve on the committee of the potential rival. They saw ADI’s role as providing “a meeting ground for the scientist, technologist, literature technician and librarian” and its mission was to stimulate research and development with information systems and broad aspects of the communication process; and [to] continue to offer cooperation to library associations with similar interests .4

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In the 1960s and 1970s, ADI and SLA had sufficient interests in common that they explored the possibility of closer collaboration, or even a merger. In 1981, ASIS reached the conclusion that despite a 20 to 30 percent overlap in membership a merger was not feasible.

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A major state-of-the-art synthesis took place in 1958 at the International Conference on Scientific Information (ICSI) in Washington, D.C., ten years after the Royal Society Science Information Conference in London. Cosponsored by the National Academy-National Research Council, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and ADI, this conference was not restricted to science information. ICSI was the first international conference that brought together scientists and information specialists to discuss progress and problems in the storage and retrieval of information. The meeting, planned over a two-year period, brought together “a variety of workers in this new field: librarians, abstracters, indexers, logicians, linguists, and many types of scientists

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and engineers but particularly those concerned with computer methods.”5 ICSI rallied the best-known people carrying out research on “systems, equipment, and theory, and on means for evaluating systems and services; people designing experimental methods to determine scientists’ needs for inform at on retrieval services; and those concerned about the issues of how the responsibility for research should be shared between government, universities, industry, and professional societies.”6

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Nearly a thousand people attended the meeting. Seventy-five papers — half of them from outside the United States — were distributed before the meeting to provide opportunities for thorough discussions. With the FID congress taking place at the same time, the international flavor of the gathering was further enhanced. The free exchange of ideas at ICSI was an exhilarating experience for those who had recently joined the field. Participants discussed the ways scientists use information, document and information retrieval, the effectiveness of various publications, and the likelihood of a general theory for information storage and search. By that time it seemed fairly certain that mechanized literature searches, using computers, would soon be available.

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Participants expressed concern that responsibility for information work was diffuse: interrelated responsibilities pertaining to storage and retrieval of information involved the suppliers of research funds, authors of papers, editors and publishers of journals and of the indexing and abstracting tools that refer to the papers. ICSI disappointed those who hoped that they would find clear solutions to current problems. Instead, ICSI was of the nature of a status report that also pinpointed areas for further research. The participants left ICSI with a sense of having gained a more integrated view of a field that was just beginning to take shape.7

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The following year, Claire K. Schultz started to bring together the body of U.S. literature of this multidisciplinary field in a “documentalists’ bookshelf,” which, for several years, became a feature of the exhibits at ADI’s annual meetings.

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Most of the planners of the ICSI conference were members of ADI. They wanted ADI to fulfill what they saw as its possibilities and were frustrated by ADI’s limitations. In the early to middle-1950s, expansion of the reorganized ADI was hampered because it did not have the funds for a full-time executive director and its elected secretary could scarcely handle the volume of correspondence engendered by the long delays of American Documentation and also take care of the day-to-day operations of the organization. But things took a turn for the better after 1957.

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With the Soviets’ launching of Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, in 1957, the display of Soviet scientific capability — and even

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superiority — so shocked the United States that science and education catapulted to the top of national priorities. This greatly benefited the ADI, which received some of the funds channeled for scientific research that supported scientific information work. Furthermore, government funds now provided opportunities for the expansion of library and information services, for deeper studies in the information sciences, for issue-oriented meetings, and for new publications; all these activities also drew a number of capable people to the field.

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In the late 1950s, a burst of technical and intellectual innovations — and available funds — expanded the number of workers concerned with information in all its forms and uses. Through the conscious effort of a small group of dedicated people, ADI’s membership doubled by 1959 and escalated within three years to 1,221 individual and 64 institutional members.

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In 1957 the ADI established a Committee on the Future, which looked at the patterns of scientific and technical societies, examined the state of the institute, and made recommendations for ADI’s development, which were followed, on the whole. The committee noted that already before the reorganization the ADI held annual meetings, had a newsletter, and published its own journal. American Documentation (AD) became one of the important journals in the field; the informal newsletter became a formal publication in 1961 (and was later absorbed in the Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, afterward occasionally emerging as an independent publication) .8

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The infusion of funds from the National Science Foundation allowed ADI to move into its own offices in 1960 and, except for a few years, to continue to maintain its own headquarters. Gradually, ADI acquired the hallmarks of a professional community: formulating a code of ethics; starting a placement service to support its members; in 1963, on the initiative of the Delaware Valley Chapter, establishing an award of merit recognizing outstanding accomplishment in the field; and, in 1966, instituting special interest groups (SIGs) to accommodate the members’ broad range of interests.

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Publication of abstracts and reviews is also a mark of a maturing field. Until 1966, AD published the abstracts that a committee of volunteers provided, attempting to cover the literature of the disciplines contributing to the field. Then the ADI, together with the Chemical Literature Division of the American Chemical Society and the Documentation Division of the Special Libraries Association, established an independent publication, Documentation Abstracts (which soon became Information Science Abstracts). That same year, the first volume of the Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST) appeared. The publication under Carlos Cuadra filled a serious gap in the literature.

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A New Profession, a Changed Society 191

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By the late 1950s, a movement started to change the name of the American Documentation Institute. The structure of the ADI was that of a society, and “documentation” projected an old-fashioned image: the people working in the field were by now concentrating on information and its retrieval and on representation of information. Their concern extended from the microactivity of symbol manipulation to the macroactivity of determining what information systems were important for the nation. It took from 1963, when the council of ADI considered the issue,9 until January 1, 1968 — to vote and to carry out the necessary bylaw changes — for the ADI to officially change its name to American Society for Information Science (ASIS). While ADI was contemplating the name change to show that its interest was not primarily in documents, the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) wanted to adopt the same name to indicate that ACM’s concern was not in hardware alone.10

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Soon further changes in ASIS’s name were proposed. Members realized that most of them were not carrying out scientific work; their professional activities were in operations and closer to engineering than pure science, unless interpreted in the Aristotelian sense that science is above all the search for understanding.11 Furthermore, ASIS members found that information science was just as obscure to the rest of the population as documentation had been before. From time to time, recommendations have been made to call ASIS the American Society for Information Science and Technology, or a variant of it. Since the late 1970s, with more members from outside the United States participating in annual meetings and with growing international sympathies among U.S. members, changing ASIS’s name by dropping the “American” designation or by becoming an international society has also been proposed. The latter change, however, would have altered ASIS’s character so much that even non-U.S. members objected to it.

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ADI Coming into Its Own

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In the late 1950s and early 1960s, when ADI’s membership surged and government funds made its development possible, ADI had a core group of devoted members who set the direction of the institute. During these critical years the effect of ADI’s leadership was as deep as the effect of founders of an organization.

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During its great growth period in the 1960s, several presidents of the ADI helped shape the organization. Gerald Sophar had an understanding how organizations functioned and discerned early that documentation was a social science.12 Having been a member of ADI’s committee on the future, he helped draw the ADI together before and

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also after his 1961 presidency. Sophar helped settle editorial crises at American Documentation and helped bring the journal back under the control of ADI from Interscience Publishers, which had taken over as publisher of AD for a few years when the journal did not have sufficient income to carry on. Sophar also had a hand in arranging a transfer of the U.S. membership in FID to the National Academy of Sciences, thus ensuring, for a time, a stable secretariat and a broader American representation in FID.13

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While Sophar provided leadership and support in setting the institute’s administrative house in order, Claire K. Schultz attempted to define the profession and tie in the present with the past and the future. Her early career led her through almost every kind of advanced information retrieval project of the period, including teaching in Drexel University’s new information science degree program. Schultz used the occasion of ADI’s silver anniversary to bring back Watson Davis, who addressed the annual meeting, recalling ADI’s origins and sharing his views on documentation. Schulz also was the first — and for a long time the only — one to attempt to capture ADI’s early history.14

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The field was developing fast. Projects were proliferating. Gradually, however, a consensus on what constituted science information-information science was beginning to take shape. Schultz organized a state-of- the-art seminar on documentation and information retrieval for the 1961 ADI meeting. This seminar provided the basis for the Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, started a few years later.15

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Robert Hayes’s major contribution during his presidency in 1963 was his managerial know-how. Several times in ADI’s history when outside project funds became available, the ADI expanded, spent the moneys too fast, and was confronted with a financial crunch when funding came to an end. As in Pharaoh’s dream, lean periods followed on the heels of prosperity, when expenses had to be ruthlessly cut and the expanding programs curtailed. Hayes carried out the difficult task of bringing ADI out of its first major financial crisis and also of keeping the institute on track.

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Hayes had a lifetime influence on the field. He was an expert on systems and organized the successful Lake Arrowhead Symposium on system design in 1962; he was coauthor with Joseph Becker of one of the early books on Information Storage and Retrieval — published during the year of his presidency — which was the most comprehensive text in the field16 and later he harmonized library science and information science as dean of the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) school of library and informations science.

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Hans Peter Luhn, who had a remarkable career with IBM as an inventive research engineer, expanded the vision of ADI. Although

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most members held good positions, they were little known outside library and information circles, in contrast to the ADI under Davis. This is why, in the critical decade between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s, ADI members were so pleased that individuals with the stature of Peter Luhn or Milton 0. Lee, an outstanding scientist and director of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), were committed to the institute. Luhn worked intently with the ADI. With its founding father practically forgotten, the ADI needed a new hero. Mortimer Taube, who brought about the reorganization of the institute, was too controversial. But Luhn, who contributed a sense of worldliness to the ADI and whose vision sparked others in the field, fitted this role. The field of information retrieval, as it was still called, was new and the confidence of the ADI members in their status was frail enough that, even years later, few had realized that Luhn’s close contact with the information community was of value to IBM as wel1.17 Luhn was the first recipient of ADI’s award of merit. After his sudden death during his presidency Luhn at once became part. of the ADI-ASIS mythology.

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Luhn had worked on equipment but his best known contributions to the field were processes that made the best use of the current technology — such as keyword-in-context (KWIC) indexing — which made it possible to use data processing equipment to produce bibliographies automatically with titles grouped together roughly by subject. Because KWIC bibliographies were easy to produce, these bibliographies were popular for a while in spite of their drawbacks, some of which were the same as those of Taube’s uniterms. Another of Luhn’s ideas, selective dissemination of information (SDI), was based on the same principles as Slosson and Davis’s long-forgotten 1926 proposal. Through SDI, users could automatically receive bibliographies, abstracts, or reprints of works of interest to them. The service required preparation of profiles that indicated the interest of each user, a technique that remained useful for later on-line activities as well.

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The 1963 annual meeting in Chicago turned out to be a technical and financial success, thanks to Luhn. The program was more substantive than earlier meetings and included several interdisciplinary presentations. Luhn, marshaling IBM’s resources, arranged for the seven hundred registrants to receive “preprints” of short papers set into print with a computer-driven composer. ADI members were proud that this volume, the first technical book ever composed on electronic information processing equipment, was produced at their annual meeting.

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Luhn, possibly because of the freedom granted to him by IBM, was in touch with the various constituencies within the information

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community and could see beyond their immediate concerns. He wanted to broaden the field of information science and bridge the chasm between librarians and others working on retrieval and transfer of information. He was instrumental in opening up a dialogue with the Special Libraries Association and in forming a Joint Operating Group (JOG), which at times included Eugene B. Jackson and Bernard Fry. Luhn also saw the need to establish an informal communication medium to bring together timely news, to focus on what the information specialists and special librarians had in common, and also to showcase the diversity of activities. After his death, a group of ADI and SLA members followed up on the idea, but only an experimental issue of Information Science News came out.18

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Luhn was troubled, as were some others, that many information science papers were not of high caliber. Too much duplication occurred as people were rushing into print, often making unsubstantiated pronouncements. Luhn believed that critical reviews were badly needed in the field. He and Laurence B. Heilprin were instrumental in bringing about ARIST.

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One of Heilprin’s major contributions was to set the stage for special interest groups. He initiated the SIGs to keep members with strong but specialized interests in ADI and to allow expansion of the ADI in the direction of those interests. Heilprin became president on Luhn’s death and served through 1965. He was a physicist who had shifted to documentation and had worked under Verner Clapp at the Council on Library Resources. He also worked for Documentation Incorporated, Taube’s company, and spent a significant part of his career as professor at the University of Maryland. Throughout his career, Heilprin was concerned about exploring the fundamental aspects of information science. He stimulated others to do research and to attempt to discover the theoretical underpinnings of information science.

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The main areas of ADI’s emerging interests were brought into focus by the conferences on education for information science in 1962 and 1965, by the first special interest groups, and by the chapters in the first volume of ARIST.19

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The people with the greatest early influence on U.S. information scientists, however, were Taube, Mooers, and Perry. Saul Herner and others who carried out the early user studies did not have the same personal impact, although they were cited in the body of work on user studies that greatly influenced people planning information services in the early 1960s.

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Taube, who led the changeover at ADI, took over the editorship of AD from Tate but soon gave it up because developing his company took up much of his time. Trained as a philosopher, he was at ease

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using logical symbols to express his ideas; although his uniterm theory could be easily understood his writings had a scientific aura that fitted in well with the documentalists’ longing for a more scientific basis for their field. He was already known through his work at the Library of Congress and at the AEC. He had a powerful personality and was a superior propagandist, qualities which made him an effective missionary for documentation-information science and which also helped gain acceptance of his theories among information professionals. Being the first to make an information company a financial success, Taube also inspired entrepreneurs and managers in this still uncharted field.

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The stronger mathematical foundation of Calvin Mooers’s work, mentioned earlier, was appreciated among ADI members, but their appreciation was more in the abstract. Mooers understood the state of computers and their possibilities better than the other early ADI documentalists. Less flamboyant and more scholarly than Taube, he was at a disadvantage for not having a strong institutional base. Working from his Zator company in Cambridge, Massachusetts, he could not obtain consistent funding for his projects, limiting his ability to demonstrate his ideas or to keep him in the limelight. Hardly anyone knew that he was Davis’s son-in-law. Despite his scholarliness, he understood better how people interact with information. His “descriptors” worked well for smaller collections, mostly because he believed that users’ current interests should determine which descriptors to select.20 In spite of the high regard people had for his work, he was too often neglected by meeting planners because of professional politics and rivalries for coveted research grants.

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James Perry”s personality was that of an academic with an international outlook. His ideas about coding had evolved since the 1930s. Perry teamed up with Madeline Berry (later Henderson) and with Allen Kent, who made the translation of his ideas into projects possible. In 1955 Perry and Kent moved to the Center for Documentation and Communication Research of Western Reserve University, which provided them with an institutional base. Although Perry moved to the University of Arizona and Kent later moved to Pittsburgh, they left their impact on WRU. Perry had a strong influence on ADI in the mid-1950s, and his intellectual influence on the field was stronger than it appears today. The elaborate coding of the Western Reserve system and applying the necessary link and role indicators was time-consuming, as was the necessary sorting with current data processing equipment. In retrospect, the “telegraphic abstracts” anticipated the demand for the forward and backward searches of expert systems; batches of these encoded cards, albeit not set up in the format of

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current knowledge bases, could have served as a knowledge base for such searches.

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By 1967, ADI-ASIS had the character si tics of a professional society. But it takes more than the formation of a learned society to establish a professional identity; even an infrastructure of journals, reference works, teaching texts, advanced monographs, and bibliographic aids do not necessarily create a cognitive identity for a discipline. A sense of common orientation and purpose that stems from a consensus on central problems must be established. Followers, students, and satisfactory career structures are needed.21

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Who were the followers? ADI members were concerned with all aspects of specialized information.22 As Sophar and others recalled, in the 1950s the members generated excitement. Some of them were capable scientists or ingenious engineers, while others were primarily managers of operations. Quite a few of them were mavericks, professionals with strong convictions, willing to look at the world from a new angle and ready to battle out their differences.

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Members of the ADI can probably be accused of many things: impetuousness, unscientific investigation, theorizing without sufficient data, etc. However, by and large, it must be admitted that we have courage. The recognition of the magnitude of the problems attending the effective control of the vast amounts of recorded data and information and our willingness to attempt to solve these problems with far too little money, personnel and time, attest to our courage.23

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All enjoyed, however, the thrill of being pioneers at a new frontier. They devised systems that turned out to be practical in some instances and useless in others, and they occasionally reinvented approaches long known to librarians. Typically, like soldiers on the front, they had to be preoccupied with the battle, of winning a skirmish; only a few could think of the grand strategy of winning the war, let alone consider the even greater overall plans, the larger societal concerns of establishing peace among the warring parties. Like members of a new cult, documentalists were eager to meet challenges that tested their intellectual or managerial mettle.

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The influx of scientists affected the development of this new multidisciplinary field. People trained in the social sciences, in psychology, or in the humanities were also working in the field, but those with

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science-engineering backgrounds and the librarians had the strongest voice. Because of the difference in their professional cultures, the librarians and science information specialists clashed at times. With the powerful resources made available for science information and the difference in status and pay scale between scientists and librarians, science information specialists wanted to maintain or even promote such a caste division.

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The changes in SIGs and in the interests of members barely indicate the many changes that have transformed the profession, the available tools, and the framework of operations.

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Thus, it should not be surprising that the first volume of the Annual Reviews of Information Science and Technology opened with an examination of the “professional aspects” of the field.24 While the term documentation was used, the chief concern was improving intellectual access to materials under the general heading of information retrieval. No unified conceptual model of the still disjointed field existed. The field was a confluence of several disciplines and as a rule dealt with practical matters. The more abstract minded were attempting to develop new theories from roots of computing and librarianship, linguistics, philosophy, mathematics, engineering, and cybernetics. As stated repeatedly by Herbert White, a former president of both SLA and ASIS, physicists understand their profession and do not need to explain to outsiders what they do; similarly, information scientists have a common understanding of what their field is and do not have to explain to other information scientists what their field is about.

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The number of followers was growing rapidly. The challenge of organizing technical reports and making them available, discussed in earlier chapters, gradually brought about the revelation that information processing should be viewed as a system — from the inception to the appearance of the material to its dissemination and use. By 1965 computers had developed sufficiently that a conference on project INTREX was held to consider interactive use of computers to connect faculty and students with the university library and other information resources of the university. The Council on Library Resources already had carried out a successful pilot project on converting the pre-1952 National Union Catalog to machine readable form,25 while Harold Borko and others at System Development Corporation (SDC) were using a time-shared computer connected to teletypewriters and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) to search for and display titles and to compare the effectiveness of various indexing methods. The National Library of Medicine was now producing a major bibliography, the monthly Index Medicus by computer equipment and GRACE (Graphic Arts Composing Equipment), using a variety of typefaces and outstanding typography.

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A New Profession, a Changed Society 198

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The national concern for science also provided additional funding for biomedical research and new legislation, the Higher Education Act of 1965 and the Medical Library Assistance Act, provided funds for training in librarianship and information science and for training information specialists in the health sciences. Social science data bases were being established. In 1966, the Urban Renewal Administration data base (URBANDOC) was being tested, and the Federal Government started the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), to be responsible for document collection, indexing, announcement, and distribution in the education field. ERIC had both cooperative and coordinating functions and was one of the early on-line databases.

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The interests of ADI members and societal movements outside the ADI are reflected in the themes of annual meetings, the contents of ARIST, and the SIGs. SIGs were established as membership interests expanded and discontinued or merged with other SIGs when interests waned. For the past several years ASIS has had twenty-two to twenty-four SIGs. In the 1960s, the predominant concerns were processing, technology, user groups, and sites; in the 1970s, social concerns, specialization within user groups, and various areas in the profession were in the forefront. Typically, in the 1960s the focus was on automatic language processing, classification research, indexing, and vocabulary control; reprographics, library automation, and information analysis centers had become of importance.

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As Flood noted, the 1970s showed the emergence of social concerns such as energy reflected in the SIGs, but also on-line services, nonprint media, and numeric data bases. Later, the focus of SIGs broadened: the SIG on information analysis centers became one of information analysis and evaluation; the SIG on library automation and networks became more concerned with networks; the SIG on SDI, selective dissemination of information, widened its focus to computer retrieval systems; and the SIG on reprographic technology shifted emphasis to become a SIG for storage and retrieval technology, which also includes the more recent optical disc technologies.26

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In addition to followers, a profession needs students. Many people had entered the field without formal courses in information science and technology. Formal education for information science remained within library schools, except for the programs started at Georgia Institute of Technology and Lehigh University, both of which grew out of their libraries’ interest in having a program.27

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ADI’s education committee found that from the mid-1950s on, new courses in scientific and engineering information were offered or material was added to existing courses; they also found that several library schools considered initiating courses in documentation. By 1962, educational programs were established at Western Reserve

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University, Drexel Institute of Technology (now Drexel University), Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of California, Carnegie Institute of Technology, the University of Chicago, and the University of Michigan.

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Planning a formal program requires, at the least, analysis and a definition of the field of study. By the early 1960s, the field had shifted from being primarily concerned with bibliography and science information; it was now becoming a more generalized information science, defined at the Georgia Institute of Technology symposium as “[t]he science that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces governing the flow of information, and the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability.”28

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Included in the process are origination, dissemination, collection, organization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and use of information. The field is derived from, or related to, several disciplines: mathematics, logic, linguistics, psychology, computer technology, operations research, the graphic arts, communications, library science, management, and some others.

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Four different kinds of approaches to information science were brought to the fore at the 1965 ADI conference on education. These were: systems, mathematics, behavioral science, and a type of cybernetic approach. System design was clearly important and was advocated by Robert Hayes. Manfred Kochen, Gerard Salton, and D. J. Hillman emphasized the mathematical approach, while Edwin B. Parker and William J. Paisley stressed “the need for training in the social psychology of human communication and in behavioral-science research methodology.” They believed that at least those who expect to work on evaluating information systems and to be innovative in planning them should be trained to conduct the necessary psychological research to evaluate such systems.

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Robert S. Taylor suggested separating the field into information sciences — in the plural — and information engineering,29 a term mentioned by Vanderbilt in 1935 but not used since. The confusion about the meaning of information science would have been reduced had the term information engineering taken hold and been used in discussions of development, design, and operation of information systems, indexing and abstracting services, information services, or libraries. No satisfactory term exists to describe the profession: information specialist is too vague, while information intermediary is too narrow.

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By 1965, interdisciplinary work was being carried out at MIT, Harvard, University of Michigan, and University of Pennsylvania. Three universities were formulating degree programs, and the University of Chicago listed systems, development indexing and subject analysis,

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mechanical translation and language processing, symbolic processes, and semantics among possible areas of dissertation work.

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The annual meetings at ADI began to devote sessions to education. By 1966 tutorials were presented for neophytes and for those on the advanced level. The ACM and AFIPS (the American Federation of Information Processing Societies) provided courses. New courses were given in the United Kingdom and Canada, but at that time Americans, convinced that the United States was at the forefront, found little interest in the educational patterns of other countries.

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The board of the ADI-ASIS fully recognized the importance of substantive curricula. They were concerned that setting requirements would unduly restrict a fast-developing field and were therefore hesitant to prescribe what should be taught and, later, to certify documentalists and information scientists.

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Library schools were adding courses to their curricula and introducing entirely new concepts in traditional courses. Since so many of ADI’s elite were scientists, the scientific rather than the “soft” social science approach was accepted. Developing techniques and concepts — on systems, data bases, networks, and, more recently, on software, hardware, and network architecture — is necessary to make use of the opportunities the technologies offer. Less emphasis was being placed on the cognitive aspects on the use of information, knowledge transfer, and communication.

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Gradually information science teaching has became part of the library school curricula. By the late 1980s most library schools have incorporated information science or information service in their names, although the change of name did not necessarily mean a radical change in the curriculum.30

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Since the 1950s, user studies and other work have become part of the core of knowledge of the information science field, and some of it was published by ADI-ASIS. Because of the mind-set of an earlier generation, members rather wrestled with Shannon’s information theory than with the cognitive aspects of knowledge transfer.

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Possibly, because scientists felt such a need for information support, a critical mass of interested scientists and a few board-certified physicians became concerned about bibliographic support and information management, but few outstanding psychologists or sociologists contributed directly to information science and technology. The psychologists and social scientists who had become part of the information science community had fewer followers than either the scientific or medical information specialists.

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By the 1980s, a number of schools have been strengthened. Conducting workshops has become a growth industry, and both universities and private companies offer short courses. Information specialists can

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also pursue their interests in departments of computing and communication and in business schools. Although by 1990 several schools were discontinued — at the University of Southern California, Denver, Western Reserve University, and Chicago, among others — the variety of formal and informal educational opportunities for information specialists is still growing.

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The profession and ASIS could expand and flourish because of the support of the federal government. Thus, before considering career opportunities for information specialists, we must pause and look at the influence of government on information science.

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After World War II, the government took over the role played earlier by the philanthropic foundations. The federal government underwote without hesitation integration of the scientific and technical information gained during World War II into the national life. With the concurrent growth of the government and the U.S. population, the government remains by far the greatest producer and consumer of information, making information, its storage, retrieval, and its management of vital concern to the government.

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As a major user and investor, the government had considerable influence on the selection of the players and the directions of information research. Since World War II, the navy and air force supported numerous innovative information projects; the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health provided funds for research and development. Some outstanding work was carried out by SDC, which later, as a private company, had to stand on its own; funds were funneled into Chemical Abstracts that made it possible to computerize and expand its operations.

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As long as funds were plentiful, research work was progressing and information centers and information analysis centers were being established and provided needed services. The meetings mentioned earlier were supported, at least partly, with government funds, and so were publications of the proceedings. But in the early days of government- funded information work, so much was unknown that decisions on program budgets had to be made under conditions of irreducible ignorance and uncertainty, mentioned by Stephen Jay Gould in a different context. Users could not yet specify their requirements clearly. Capabilities of equipment and the performance of new systems were optimistically overstated.

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Burton Adkinson at the National Science Foundation and Harold Wooster, handing out air force contracts, recognized this uncertainty and took deliberate risks to encourage innovation and testing of new ideas. The pendulum since has swung in the opposite direction. Grant applicants feel compelled to predict the outcome of research experiments and find it more difficult to change directions if their work does not produce the anticipated results.

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The comfort of receiving generous support for research on the frontiers of information science and technology was so appealing that the insidious effects of depending on government funding became obvious only later. When universities that had become dependent on the government to fund the expanded research in established disciplines opened their doors to information research, they expected the new faculties to provide their own support. Consequently, blue-ribbon academics were competing for government funds with newly established companies and with others from the private sector. Academics, giving in to pressure, often did not take the time to sort out their ideas before making their results public, and their papers were more like corporate reports to stockholders than scientific presentations of experimental results. Competition for funds was so intense that informal discussions on the status of projects were more guarded than they are in some industries. Some important players were not asked to special invitational meetings. Now organizers — being very human — were more likely to exclude possible competitors from meetings than they had been during the old ADI days under Davis.

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At one point, Mortimer Taube wanted to impeach Jesse Shera, editor of American Documentation, for publishing too many articles from the Western Reserve group and thus advertising his own institution. Shera protested, showing that Taube himself had almost as many papers in AD; furthermore, good articles were hard to come by, and more research was being carried out at CDCR-WRU than at other places; thus it should not have been surprising that more work was produced there. After hearing out both sides, the ADI council committee dismissed the accusation.31

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Competition in a field where no ground rules have been established became a concern of the council of ADI, and in 1961 it drew up a Code of Professional Practice. The code is a period piece, showing signs of a problematic situation, written not only to establish standards of behavior but also to reduce competition. The code included statements about integrity and honesty, about carrying out assignments in a scrupulous manner, about not accepting remuneration for a particular service from more than one source, and about notifying clients of conflicts of interest.

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The code also admonished those in the field to help the advancement of subordinates, not to underbid others, and not to attempt to obtain a contract or grant if steps have been taken to award it to another.32

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The havoc caused by changes in government policies or in the sociopolitical climate is more often associated with developing countries than with industrialized nations. In the United States, government policies enabled the creation of specialized information centers but later brought about discontinuities when funding for the centers came to a halt. For example, the highly praised Information Center for Hearing, Speech, and Disorders of Human Communication at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, established in the mid1960s, was disbanded in the 1970s. Extensive information services were planned by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) and were established in the wake of the Arab oil embargo, when the nation launched a policy of energy self-sufficiency. Once the memory of oil shortages lessened, so did the demand for developing alternate energy resources. Funding for SERI was slashed and its just-built-up team of information workers was scattered. More recently, Bionet developed with a $3.5 million grant from the National Institutes of Health — performed comparisons of DNA protein sequences and provided a variety of computer services for research workers. When funding was discontinued, researchers in small colleges and less-endowed universities lacking strong computer facilities were hit hard.33

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Government funding was also a sensitive issue for the information industry. At first, the fledgling companies welcomed funds to support development too risky for them to undertake. Once the technology was developed, protests of government interference in the free economy arose. Did government support for Chemical Abstracts preempt a competing new service to test the market and gain a foothold? On the other hand, was it in the best national interest that objections from private industry could prevent the U.S. postal service from using available computing and communication technologies to provide innovative services? Discussions on public-private interface issues were typically conducted on an ideological basis. The Information Industry Association, founded in 1968, spoke out in contrast to ASIS members, who were divided on these issues.

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Inadequate Information Policies

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The absence of a unified information policy has been decried in the past two decades. What George Cabot Lodge describes as the tattered American ideology has become a hindrance to the nation for the past

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forty years at least.34 Strong opposition not so much to the size of government as to government intervention in general precludes long term planning and systematic policy setting. Fuzziness in policy making characterizes not only the new and complex areas of information and telecommunication; other vital areas that affect national life, such as energy, environment, or education, also suffer.

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With information and its management taking on larger shares of the gross national product (GNP),35 the government did not formulate consistent guidelines regarding support for information provision, issues of privacy, and international matters, as for instance, transborder data flow. To practitioners ’concerned with operations or research workers struggling with fundamental concepts, domestic policy concerns and especially international policy issues appeared remote. Even sophisticated information specialists were hesitant to become involved in policy issues. The extent to which policy issues affect everyday practices has not been obvious to most ASIS members. Most were unaware how transborder data flow legislation or international trading of data bases and data communication systems affect the cost of information at home and how inconsistent interpretation of the laws adds additional uncertainty to the marketplace and thus to their jobs. Robert Chartrand of the Congressional Research Service at the Library of Congress started discussions of policy matters at the ASIS annual meetings, while Andrew Aines attempted to widen the perspective of the membership through his columns in the Bulletin.

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In an early report, the committee on the future recommended that ADI “be an organization which offered a place for men of similar interests derived from many disciplines,” accommodating the many — even conflicting — views of its members and acting as a spokesman for documentation in national and international relationships. The first part of the recommendation was fulfilled. ASIS also has become an advocate, testifying before Congress and other committees considering issues important for the information community. With its limited staff, ASIS, although located in the District of Columbia, does not have a “Washington office.” Articles and columns in the Bulletin keep members informed of important activities but do not necessarily ensure dynamic participation. Members in the Washington area, others involved in policy-setting activities, and national or international committees will provide information to ASIS headquarters but cannot keep it consistently informed.

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ASIS presidents have made strong statements to legislative committees when they could carry the flag of the entire community but have maintained a position of neutrality on controversial issues. ASIS members included users and producers of information; thus some issues, such as copyright matters, will remain controversial. When the

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membership is not unified on significant issues, ASIS’s neutral position does not have to be a retreat.36 In the mid-1970s the ASIS committee on committees recommended that the society produce “white papers” in which advocates on different sides clearly present the opposing points of view and the underlying rationale. Even though ASIS did not follow up on this recommendation, such expositions would be useful for the information community, government agencies, and private industry.

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International Changes

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As sympathetic as ASIS members and many information specialists are to reaching out to people beyond the U.S. borders and as concerned as they are about information services in underdeveloped countries, the sympathy still is mostly on the emotional level, although some exchange of programs takes place. By the end of this century, however, a number of the pillars on which the global order was rebuilt after World War II will have changed significantly. Two secretaries of state pointed out in bipartisan agreement that the United States must adjust to the new international realities of a world in which foreign policy and economic policy have become increasingly interdependent.37 Americans, on the whole, have been slow to take on the new international challenges, lagging behind their European counterparts. The absence of a global approach is characteristic of U.S. undergraduate and graduate curricula; thus too few are equipped to work internationally. But such a gap should not limit the careers of capable people. Once the vision of information scientists is broadened and they feel that they can work effectively in the international arena, more will seize the exciting professional challenges as opportunities are opening up for them.

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Having considered followers and students, we now must consider the third important facet in determining a profession: can people build satisfactory careers in the field? When the ADI was reorganized its members were people with a vision. Those who came by way of other professions shifted because they did not fit the professional framework of chemists, historians, or psychologists and were intrigued by this new, developing discipline. Librarians wanted to try the new approaches, tools, and techniques to improve services for their publics.

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Quite a few ADI members belonged to one or more library associations and even served on their boards. Traditional librarians, however, were not ready to accept the new creed professed by the emerging group. Even the leadership of the Special Libraries Association, so forward looking in the 1930s, adamantly opposed automation at the time the ADI was being restructured.38

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Sharing the same turf, documentalists were impatient with the librarians’ resistance to changing established methods. Frustrated information specialists did not understand that librarians did not want to jeopardize library operations for which they were responsible. The librarians’ mistrust of the reliability of equipment and the adequacy of newly developed processes was not unjustified at the time. Having to code information and carry out rigid assembly-line procedures demanded by the machinery was destroying what catalogers felt was their role as the intellectual intermediary between the creator of the work and the user. The quiet dignity of libraries was shattered when troublesome sorters and collators for data processing became part of operations, accentuating for the traditionalists the schism between machines and men’s souls. Lingering under the surface were also uncomfortable questions about the value of library work if it could be taken over by mere machines. Librarians, equipment manufacturers, and computer programmers coming from different cultures had difficulties explaining their requirements to one another and understanding the specific problems each had to overcome.

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The intense resistance of librarians to automation and the underlying concepts should not be dismissed lightly. Shifting from task- and organization-oriented thinking to a more comprehensive dynamic model of a system is not a simple exercise. Changing mental constructs is more difficult than changing everyday practices. Nor should the difficulty of changing symbols be overlooked in Clifford Geertz’s view.39 For centuries, the book symbolized learning, study, and, ultimately, wisdom. Now abstract — and possibly less substantive — concepts were being proffered in its stead. The untested approaches of Perry or Mooers seemed inadequate compared with established library techniques. Still, the shift has taken place. Books remain important, but the information we gather comes from and is distributed in several different media.

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For active members of the ADI, the challenge of exploring new frontiers was exhilarating. Computers allowed manipulation of symbols, free from the confinement to paper or the longitudinal time sequence of sound. Experiments provided new insights in how people and organizations function. New tools now make it possible to present the same information in different forms, leading to better

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understanding of how people think. Traditional ways of knowledge transfer could now be reexamined and improved.

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The early controversies between the librarians and information scientists are reminiscent of the eighteenth-century debates on crystallography when humanists denounced scientists who, concerned with exact measurement and quantification, began to measure the angles and surfaces of crystals to discern common characteristics. Even Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the great poet, statesman, and scientist, decried this cold, categorical, unnatural approach for characterizing such mystical substances. Humanists, valuing human experience and the wholeness and harmony of nature above all, feared that lifeless measurements for analyzing and categorizing nature would lead to dehumanization. To Goethe, the work meant subjugation to a soulless compulsion and a disregard of intuition.40 To scientists, exploration of the underlying structure of crystals and discovery of a deeper harmony revealed a different kind of inner beauty. Those concerned that the use of codes to describe a work would rob it of its essence — a spirit that cannot be captured — could not appreciate that documentalists searching for scientific ways to improve information retrieval found excitement in discovering abstract underlying structures to represent documents and to capture more universal ways to approach representation of information.

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In spite of the sharp differences in their professional beliefs, as the new technologies began to take hold forward-looking librarians and documentalists learned to work with one another. Many information specialists work in libraries, which take advantage of the new tools, provide broader services to users, and have revised their approaches to library management.

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In the past it was easier for people to imagine what librarians do than to envision what career paths are open to information scientists. Some traditional library jobs continue, others have disappeared or have become lower-level routines. But new challenges are appearing. The model of the library-information center is changing. The majority of ASIS members are “information professionals” who “collect, organize, retrieve and transfer information in any type of organization or as independent consultants.”41

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Since the 1952 reorganization of the ADI the country has become an information economy. Defining information differently from information scientists, Fritz Machlup took a measure of the sector of the country’s economy associated with “the production and distribution of knowledge” and was the first to provide figures indicating that the United States was becoming an information society. Grouping thirty industries into five major categories — education, research and development, communications media, information machines (like

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computers), and information services (finance, insurance, real estate) — Machlup estimated that between 1947 and 1958 the information sector had expanded at a compound growth rate double that of GNP. By all accounts, including those of Uri Porath, using categories different from Machlup, the information sector is becoming, if it has not yet become, the dominant sector of the country.42

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With the widely available technologies and off-the-shelf software, people can set up their own small systems and networks, tasks information specialists performed in the past. On the other end of the scale, organizations are becoming more complex, and companies grow to the size of small countries. New organizational entities are being created to coordinate data, computing and telecommunication, and overall corporate information management. Computer specialists who like to call themselves MIS (management information system) managers are competing for the senior positions for which information scientists with the right temperament and organizational skills can also qualify.

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Even at the entry level, Jesse Shera used to maintain, specialized knowledge of a subject field is important for information specialists. Many students entering graduate schools of library and information science have already gained subject expertise; those who have not, Shera urged, should seek a second master’s degree in a specialty. Librarians and information specialists competing with others for higher-level coordinating or line positions, however, must have an understanding of the organization and its business. The globalized world economy and the increasing interdependence of countries and of organizations offer remarkable opportunities for information specialists on both the management and information intermediary level. A major obstacle for information specialists to overcome is their reluctance toward assertiveness and self-promotion.

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ASIS members were always concerned with the management of information. Some became managers of libraries and information centers and worked on bibliographies and on-line services; some moved into computer-related careers. A high proportion of the early ADI members moved into academia later in their careers.

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As the society is moving beyond its golden anniversary, the organization continues to renew itself as the view of information management and information provision expands. With information production, planning, and management becoming so widespread, information specialists will move into jobs beyond those typically held by information scientists and information engineers, to use Robert Taylor’s term. Like others with more generalized training — MBAs or political science, psychology, or language majors — they will move into managerial positions. Inversely, more people with

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computing, business, and other kinds of backgrounds will also be competing for jobs for which the training and experience of information specialists are useful.

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To the current generation, past models of job achievement may not be satisfactory. Ambitious members of the profession might no longer be satisfied with reaching what used to be the top-level position in a nonlibrary organization. Just as the glass ceiling limits the promotion of women executives it also restricts the promotion of male information center directors.

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People working for large organizations are often promoted out of the areas circumscribed by their training. They become planners or are moved to marketing or product development, to economic analysis, or to managing information centers. Generally few information professionals entered such career paths, unless they worked for libraries, publishers, or similar companies. Loyalty to the profession and to ASIS still needs to be cultivated among its members who take on such assignments. Many chemists who have not had a bench position in years are still members of the American Chemical Society, and engineers whose main concern is finance and investments often maintain membership in their professional society. Like engineers, more information specialists will be moving into different areas of companies, rather than remaining within the shell of the library/information center. Whether they will feel pride in their professional background and loyalty to ASIS so as not to withdraw with the first shift in their career change is less certain.

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In the 1930s microfilm services could not be contained within the boundaries of ADI; today information services and the breadth of information studies cannot be contained in ASIS. The society’s growth has been limited: ASIS is losing almost as many members as it gains every year. To attract more members, ASIS will, at one point, either have to redefine its objectives to attract a more narrowly oriented membership — which is unlikely — or decide to remain an umbrella organization and find ways to appeal to more people. A sparkling journal, whether a revitalized Bulletin or a new publication, which could be made into the Psychology Today of the information field, could spark an interest in ASIS and at the same time enhance the cognitive identity of the discipline.

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As we take a last backward glance on the period covered by the history of ADI-ASIS, we can see that the technical advances spurred research and brought forth new knowledge. These developments also brought forth changes in organizations. The rigid boundary between internal information and external information — the typical responsibility of corporate libraries — does not exist any more; organizations now reach into the information network of suppliers and provide

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information support to client organizations. Small centers can reach large information collections through computer networks, while major data-bases can be made available on optical discs, occupying little space.

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Besides science, technology, and the sociopolitical changes in the era, the way we view the world has also changed. When the first steps were taken to reorganize the ADL the most destructive war in history had just come to an end. New discoveries were penetrating the inner essence of materials, life, and thought: the discovery of subatomic particles, DNA, the meaning of codes, the elements constituting information. Even then, however, we still saw everything “from earthbound eyes.” But once we walked on the moon, Joseph Campbell wrote, we had a view of earthrise, and “we could see that the earth and heaven were no longer divided but that the earth is in the heavens. There is a unity in the universe.”43 Examining the properties of different organisms, scientists have found that the processes that make up life are alike. We are also discovering that the use and trans mi si on of information in organizations follow similar patterns. Society has become more interdependent than it has been, and information provides the ties.

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The history of the American Society for Information Science follows the move from documentation to information science, an era of profound changes in the world, the development of information becoming a new body of knowledge, emerging from several disciplines. As for the profession, the crystal ball is bright, but the future is still unknown.

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  1. An indication of the essential separation from the past is that the Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science, ed. Allen Kent and Harold Lancour (New York: Dekker, 1970), does not have an entry for Davis. Although Davis participated in ADI’s Silver Anniversary meeting and ASIS established an award in his name, the early activities of the ADI and the memory of Davis’s leadership is buried in the foundations of the ADI.
  2. The beginnings of several disciplines are summarized in Machlup and Mansfield, The Study of Information (see chap. 7, n. 1).
  3. Scott Adams, interview with author.
  4. American Documentation Institute, “Report of the Secretary, November 3, 1953” (Mimeographed), ADI HQ.
  5. Lea M. Bohnert, “Report on International Conference on Scientific Information (ICSI), November 16-21, 1958, Washington, D.C.,” December 1958 (Duplicated).
  6. Madeline M. (Berry) Henderson, “Discussion of the International Conference on Scientific Information, 1958,” June 1959 (Mimeographed).
  7. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information, Washington D.C., 1958,2 vols. (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1959); Scott Adams, interview with author.
  8. “Report of a Special Committee of the American Documentation Institute on its Future,” 19 October 1959 (Mimeographed), attached to “American Documentation Institute Newsletter,” February 1960, ADI HQ. The committee was established in 1959.
  9. “American Documentation Institute. Annual Business Meeting. Thursday, October 10, 1963,” Chicago, Ill., 10 October 1963 (Carbon), ASIS HQ, transcription of the stenotyped notes taken at the meeting.
  10. Laurence Heilprin, interview with author.
  11. Aristotle, cited in Rene Dubos, Reason Awake: Science for Man (New York: Columbia University Press, 1970), 118.
  12. Gerald J. Sophar, “The Challenge,” in “American Documentation Institute Newsletter,” May 1961, p. 1 (Mimeographed), ADI HQ.
  13. In 1982, a turnaround in the political climate led to policy changes and loss of steady government support. The secretariat was disbanded and a U.S. National Committee became the national member of FID.
  14. Schultz and Garwig, History of the ADI (see chap. 9, n. 12); and Claire K. Schultz, “ASIS: Notes on its Founding and Development.” Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 2 (March 1976):49-51.
  15. American Documentation, Jan. 1962. Claire K. Schultz, interview with author, Philadelphia, Pa., 28 November 1978.
  16. Joseph Becker and Robert M. Hayes, Information Storage and Retrieval; Tools, Elements, Theories (New York: Wiley, 1963).
  17. Manfred Kochen, private communication, 1984.
  18. Announced in ADI Newsletter 4 (Spring 1965): 4.
  19. Laurence B. Heilprin, Barbara E. Markuson, and Frederick L. Goodman, eds., Proceedings of the Symposium on Education for Information Science, Warrenton, Virginia, September 7-10, 1965 (Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books, 1965); Proceedings of the Conferences on Training Science Information Specialists, 12-13 October 1961, and 12-13 April 1962 (Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology, 1962); and Laurence Heilprin, personal communication.
  20. Calvin N. Mooers, “Mooers’ Law or, Why some Information Retrieval Systems Are Used and Others Are Not,” American Documentation 11 (1960):204.
  21. Arnold Thakray and Robert K. Merton, “On Discipline Building: The Paradoxes of George Sarton,” Isis 54 (Fall 1963):494.
  22. A good description of the professional views of documentalists can be found in Becker and Hayes, Information Storage (see n. 16), especially chapter 3, “The Documentalist and Development of New Techniques,” 40-68.
  23. Sophar, “The Challenge” (n. 12).
  24. Robert S. Taylor, “Professional Aspects,” in Annual Reviews of Information Science and Technology, vol 1., ed. Carlos A. Cuadra (New York: Interscience Publishers, 1966), 15-39, and “On Education,” Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 2 (March 1976):34.
  25. Council on Library Resources, Inc., ”Report of a Pilot Project for Converting the Pre-1952 National Union Catalog to a Machine Readable Record“ (Rockville, Md., 1965), 68 pp.
  26. Barbara Flood, ”ADI/ASIS Special Interests and the Growth of SIGs“ (Unpublished paper).
  27. Taylor, ”Professional Aspects,“ 19 (see n. 24).
  28. Proceedings, Georgia Institute of Technology (see n. 19). Cited throughout this paragraph.
  29. Taylor, ”Toward an Educational Base for the Information Sciences and Information Engineering,“ 77-81.
  30. Joy K. Moll and Barbara J. Flood, ”Information Science and Information- Related Educational Programs: Their Diversity and Accreditation,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 39 (September 1988): 318-26.
  31. Private papers kindly given to author by a member of the committee; and Jesse H. Shera, interview with author.
  32. ADI Newsletter 1 NS (May 1961):9.
  33. Bionet Bites the Dust,” Science 245 (14 July 1989):126.
  34. George C. Lodge, The New American Ideology: How the Ideological Basis of Legitimate Authority in America is Being Radically Transformed The Profound Implications for Our Society in General and the Great Corporations in Particular (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975).
  35. Fritz Machlup, The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1962).
  36. Madeline M. Henderson, “ASIS Testifies at Copyright Hearings,” Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 7 (December 1980):9.
  37. Henry Kissinger and Cyrus Vance, “Bipartisan Objectives for American Foreign Policy,” Foreign Affairs 66 (Summer 1988): 900,910.
  38. Discussion with Frank McKenna, executive director, SLA, 30 March 1979. 39 Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays, (New York: Basic Books, 1973), esp. 45-56.
  39. Queisser, Microchip, 16-18 (see chap. 6, n. 10).
  40. A good example of a changed approach to librarianship is Michael K. Buckland’s Library Services in Theory and Context, Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies (New York: Pergamon Press, 1983). The work of information professionals is described in Marta Dosa, “National and International Information Policies: A Graduate Course” (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University School of Information Studies, 1987).
  41. Machlup, Production and Distribution of Knowledge (n. 35), and James R. Beniger, The Control Revolution, 22-23 (see prol., n. 6).
  42. Joseph Campbell, “Earthrise,” New York Times Magazine, April 1979, p. 51.